Medical research confirms eating red raspberries may be one of the most potent
ways to fight cancer.
Dr. Daniel Nixon, Medical University of South Carolina
(JANUARY-1999) -- One of the most popular and flavorful fruits on
the market now has an entirely new reason for becoming a part of a healthy diet. Recent medical tests have shown
that the red raspberry is one of the most effective all-natural ways to fight certain forms of cancer.
Red raspberries have the highest content of ellagic acid, a phenolic compound that is a proven
anti-carcinogen, anti-mutagen and anti-cancer initiator. Tests conducted at the Hollings Cancer Center at the
Medical University of South Carolina have revealed that the human body readily absorbs the ellagic acid from red
raspberries. This ellagic acid has been clinically shown to cause apoptosis (cell death) in cancer
Additional tests have revealed that the ellagic acid in red raspberries retains its potency after
heating, freezing and concentration processing. So whether consumed fresh, in juices, fruit spreads, preserves or
sorbets, the red raspberry should become a part of any healthy diet.
Expression and its possible role in G1 arrest and apoptosis in ellagic acid treated cancer
Narayanan BA, Geoffroy O, Willingham MC, Re GG, Nixon DW
Cancer Prevention Program, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina,
Charleston 29425, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org Ellagic acid is a phenolic compound present in fruits and nuts including
raspberries, strawberries and walnuts. It is known to inhibit certain carcinogen-induced cancers and may have other
chemo preventive properties. The effects of ellagic acid on cell cycle events and apoptosis were studied in
cervical carcinoma (CaSki) cells. We found that ellagic acid at a concentration of 10(-5) M induced G arrest within
48 h, inhibited overall cell growth and induced apoptosis in CaSki cells after 72 h of treatment. Activation of the
cdk inhibitory protein p21 by ellagic acid suggests a role for ellagic acid in cell cycle regulation of cancer
cells. PMID: 10355751
Polyphenols as cancer chemopreventive agents. Stoner GD, Mukhtar
Department of Preventive Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA. This article
summarizes available data on the chemo preventive efficacies of tea polyphenols, curcumin and ellagic acid in
various model systems. Emphasis is placed upon the anticarcinogenic activity of these polyphenols and their
proposed mechanism(s) of action. Tea is grown in about 30 countries and, next to water, is the most widely consumed
beverage in the world. Tea is manufactured as green, black, or oolong; black tea represents approximately 80% of
tea products. Epidemiological studies, though inconclusive, suggest a protective effect of tea consumption on human
cancer. Experimental studies of the antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects of tea have been conducted
principally with green tea polyphenols (GTPs). GTPs exhibit antimutagenic activity in vitro, and they inhibit
carcinogen-induced skin, lung, forestomach, esophagus, duodenum and colon tumors in rodents. In addition, GTPs
inhibit TPA-induced skin tumor promotion in mice. Although several GTPs possess anticarcinogenic activity, the most
active is (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major constituent in the GTP fraction. Several mechanisms
appear to be responsible for the tumor-inhibitory properties of GTPs, including enhancement of antioxidant
(glutathione peroxidase, catalase and quinone reductase) and phase II (glutathione-S-transferase) enzyme
activities; inhibition of chemically induced lipid peroxidation; inhibition of irradiation- and TPA-induced
epidermal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and cyclooxygenase activities; inhibition of protein kinase C and cellular
proliferation; antiinflammatory activity; and enhancement of gap junction intercellular communication. Curcumin is
the yellow coloring agent in the spice tumeric. It exhibits antimutagenic activity in the Ames Salmonella test and
has anticarcinogenic activity, inhibiting chemically induced preneoplastic lesions in the breast and colon and
neoplastic lesions in the skin, forestomach, duodenum and colon of rodents. In addition, curcumin inhibits
TPA-induced skin tumor promotion in mice. The mechanisms for the anticarcinogenic effects of curcumin are similar
to those of the GTPs. Curcumin enhances glutathione content and glutathione-S-transferase activity in liver; and it
inhibits lipid peroxidation and arachidonic acid metabolism in mouse skin, protein kinase C activity in TPA-treated
NIH 3T3 cells, chemically induced ODC and tyrosine protein kinase activities in rat colon, and 8-hydroxyguanosine
formation in mouse fibroblasts. Ellagic acid is a polyphenol found abundantly in various fruits, nuts and
vegetables. Ellagic acid is active in antimutagenesis assays, and has been shown to inhibit chemically induced
cancer in the lung, liver, skin and esophagus of rodents, and TPA-induced tumor promotion in mouse skin. PMID:
Pulmonary carcinogenesis and its prevention by dietary polyphenolic compounds.
Laboratory of Cancer Etiology and Chemoprevention, School of Pharmacy, Laval University, Quebec
City, Canada. The aims of this study were to define the cumulative exposure of Canadian smokers to NNK and to
characterize the efficacy of ellagic acid to inhibit lung tumorigenesis induced by NNK. The sales-weighted average
of NNK deliveries from Canadian cigarettes was 73.2 ng/cigarette. NNK deliveries were highly correlated to declared
tar values and were linear with puff volumes between 20 and 50 ml. Ellagic acid inhibited lung tumorigenesis
induced by NNK in A/J mice. This inhibition was related to the logarithm of the dose of ellagic acid added to the
diet. The biodistribution of ellagic acid was studied in mice gavaged with ellagic acid. Pulmonary levels of
ellagic acid were directly proportional to the dose of ellagic acid between 0.2 and 2.0 mmol/kg b.w. PMID:
Protective effects of antioxidants on experimental liver injuries.
Suzuki M, Kumazawa N, Ohta S, Kamogawa A, Shinoda M
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Hoshi University, Tokyo, Japan. Protective effects of 14 kinds
of antioxidant on liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were investigated in terms of serum enzyme
activities and bilirubin concentration. Consequently, the significant protective effects were found in sesamol,
ellagic acid, cysteamine and cysteine. These antioxidants clearly decreased the lipid peroxide in the liver tissue.
The protective effects on CCl4-induced liver injury in vivo were independent of the inhibitory activities on lipid
peroxidation in hepatic mitochondria fraction in vitro. PMID: 2262882
Oregon Raspberry and Blackberry Commission, Nutraceutical Bulletin. Vol 3, Issue 1. May
Ellagic acid - Ellagic acid has anticarcinogenic effects against a
wide range of carcinogens in several tissues. Significant inhibition of colon, esophageal, liver, lung, tongue, and
skin cancers have been shown in rats and mice by in vitro and in vivo mutagenicity and carcinogenicity
investigations. Ellagic acid is a possible chemopreventative agent, also in human carcinogenesis.
Quercetin - Quercetin is the primary flavonol found in raspberries. It has been found to be a potent
anticarcinogen against skin, colon and mammary cancers in rodents. Quercetin may also inhibit the induction and
progression of human cancers.
Anthocyanins - Anthocyanins are flavonoids with antioxidant activity. The anthocyanin content ranges between
20 and 60 mg/100 g fruit. The types of anthocyanins present are primarily yaniding-3-glucoside,
yaniding-3-sophoroside, yaniding-3-rutinoside, yaniding-3-glucosylrutinoside
Phenolics - Catechins, benzoic acid and cinnamic acid are phenolic acids present in raspberries.
Fiber - Raspberries are high in fiber (6.8 g/100 g), which has been shown to help reduce the risk of certain
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is
not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
Note: The information contained here is a summarized interpretation of historical
and scientific data pertaining to nutrients and botanicals. It's purpose is to provide an overview and is not
intended for use by pregnant or lactating women or people under a physician's care without first consulting a
health care practitioner.